Projective techniques are indirect methods used in qualitative research.
Ralston House 3W, Chestnut St. Consider the following situation: You have recently taken on administrative responsibilities at a new hospital where you are responsible for improving patient care programs and organizational efficiency in the general medicine outpatient clinics.
In this situation, immediate action—such as announcing a new clinical or quality review program—would directly address the challenges you face.
But more information might help you more effectively meet your professional responsibilities. You might want to learn what systems already work well in the clinics, or better understand what services would be valued in the local community. The information to help you meet these objectives will come primarily from the people involved in your questions and plans—your patients and coworkers, for example.
One can gather this information by talking to people informally. Alternatively, one can use qualitative research techniques for this purpose, particularly in new situations and environments. This article addresses how and why busy clinicians might use qualitative techniques to answer questions and solve problems like those in the scenario above.
Qualitative research is a form of inquiry that analyzes information conveyed through language and behavior in natural settings. Qualitative methods derive from a variety of disciplines and traditions.
Ethnography is a form of inquiry that can combine these approaches, and we will use techniques from this tradition to illustrate our points. Ethnography is a semistructured way of learning about people and their culture.
the use of projective techniques in market research Although market researchers are interested in deep emotions and thought processes specific to brands and products, the purpose is still to get at those feelings, motivations, attitudes, biases and cognitions that are below rational, conscious awareness. Projective techniques are a key tool in qualitative market research for accessing sub-conscious needs, motivations, attitudes and perceptions. Here we have a countdown of some of our favourites. Projective techniques are useful on a number of levels. Projective techniques originate in the field of psychology, along the lines of Rorschach ink blot and Thematic Apperception tests. Qualitative researchers have adapted these approaches for use in the market research field.
Table 1 outlines some of the techniques investigators use in this process. In either role they collect data in both unstructured and structured ways.
Beyond observing, ethnographers interview subjects with one or more objectives in mind: Audiotaping or videotaping these interactions helps guarantee that expressive data are captured accurately and completely as they emerge.
Taping also permits the researcher to carry the data to more controlled settings, where they can be transcribed, coded, analyzed for important themes and meanings, and verified using trained evaluators aided by computer software if appropriate.
These strategies are likely to become increasingly standardized as consensus emerges around the need for greater methodologic rigor in qualitative research.
For example, you might observe the registration and waiting area with the following questions in mind: Are anticipated delays explained sympathetically to patients at the time they arrive?
Are there sufficient diversions for patients in the waiting room? Is there evidence of impatience among the patients in the waiting area, and under what circumstances? Your observations may not answer all of these questions, but they can provide a working sense of which to investigate further, what other questions to ask, and a preliminary sense of the character of the administrative process as clinic patients experience it.
More generally, they can reveal salient differences between abstract descriptions of what happens for patients and the way things really work in a specific setting.Projective Techniques in Qualitative Market Research.
Posted on February 9, The Use of Projective Techniques Originated with Clinical Psychologists.
as are most qualitative findings. Some common projective techniques include word associations, imagery associations, grouping and choice ordering techniques, imagery associations with.
Projective techniques are a key tool in qualitative market research for accessing sub-conscious needs, motivations, attitudes and perceptions. Here we have a countdown of some of our favourites. Projective techniques are useful on a number of levels. Projective techniques originate in the field of psychology, along the lines of Rorschach ink blot and Thematic Apperception tests.
Qualitative researchers have adapted these approaches for use in the market research field. Qualitative Research: Use of Projective Techniques Depends on Objectives A qualitative research study whose primary goal is to generate as many ideas as possible – e.g., to help launch a new product, service, or name – is different than a qualitative study that sets out to gain insight into the behavior and attitudes among a target group.
This is an example of subconscious bias, and it is why qualitative marketing research often uses projective tests to find the true motivation of customers who buy or use a product or service.
The use of projective techniques in qualitative marketing research has become an accepted as well as expected practice in the industry.
Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews (whether face-to-face or online) are particularly suitable for activities that go beyond the question-response format.