Reference- O'Connor, Chiappe and Gao,
Thanks to Darryl Hosford credit for his work. In childhood there are individual bones, several of which later fuse together. These bones are named and numbered from the top downward: L5 rests on top of the sacrum, a large triangular bone made up of five fused vertebral segments.
Below the sacrum is the coccyx tailbonea small bone made up of three to five fused segments. Although the coccyx is at the bottom of the vertebral column, it does not bear weight.
The weight of the body is transmitted through the sacrum to the ilium pelvic bone. The joints that connect the sacrum and the ilium are called the sacroiliac joints. Viewed from the side, the adult spine has three normal curves Figure 2.
In the cervical and lumbar regions, the convexity of the curve is forward lordosis ; in the thoracic region, the convexity is rearward kyphosis. The cervical and lumbar lordoses are not present in a newborn infant.
The cervical lordosis develops as the infant begins to hold its head up; the lumbar lordosis develops as the child learns to stand erect. Although vertebrae of different levels have some structural differences, all have basic features in common Figure 3.
Each vertebra except C1 has a drum-shaped body which bears most of the weight. Projecting backward from the vertebral body are two short pedicles. Extending back from the pedicles are two bony plates called laminae, which meet in the middle and are fused together.
The pedicles and laminae together form a bony arch enclosing a space called the vertebral foramen. Foramen is Latin for "hole"; the plural is foramina. With the vertebrae arranged in a column, the vertebral foramina line up to form a hollow tube, the spinal canal. Contained within this canal, surrounded and protected by bone, is the spinal cord.
Several other bony projections or "processes" arise from the vertebral arches. The spinous process extends straight backward from the point where the two laminae meet.
The spinous process of C7 or T1 is especially prominent, and can easily be felt at the nape of the neck. Two transverse processes one on each side of the vertebra extend laterally from the junctions of pedicle and lamina. The spinous and transverse processes serve as attachments for muscles and ligaments.
Each vertebra also has two superior upper and two inferior lower articular processes, each with an articular joint surface called a facet.
The inferior facets of each vertebra articulate with the superior facets of the vertebra below, and so on down the column. These interlocking facet joints stabilize the spinal column, helping to hold it in alignment while permitting flexibility.Everything the horse owner and equine professional needs to know about the C6-C7 skeletal malformation in TBs and TB-derived breeds.
Muscles of the Head and Neck – Chart for Massage Therapists Neck Origin Insertion Action Notes Sternocleidomastoid Manubrium of sternum, medial 1/3 of clavicle Mastoid processes of temporal bone Unilaterally- Lateral flexion to same side and rotation to opposite sideBilaterally- flexion of head and neck Laying prone -Turn head to side and have client lift.
The main causes of chronic neck pain disorders. It is, at least [was] until very recently, generally accepted that posture will affect both general function and pain levels. THE SPINALIS MUSCLES. The Spinalis muscles are the closest to the thoracic Vertebra of all the Erector Spinae muscles and consists of two muscles, the Cervicis and the Thoracis.
The Spinalis Cervicis origin points are from the lower ligamentum nuchae: spinous processes of C6 or C7 and the insertion point of attachment is the spinous process of the axis.. The Spinalis Cervicis Muscles work.
The adult skeleton is composed of bones and there are two basic types of osseous, or bone, tissue: compact bone and spongy bone, and are classified into four . KINESIOLOGY MBLEx EXAM (11%) questions on KINESIOLOGY 11% for a total of questions each exam- Getting Ready for MBLEx EXAM, Massage Therapist job.