A, B, and C.
A, B, and C. A and B both have radio equipment, and can communicate via the airwaves using a suitable network protocol such as IEEE B and C are connected via a cable, using it to exchange data again, with the help of a protocol, for example Point-to-Point Protocol.
However, neither of these two protocols will be able to transport information from A to C, because these computers are conceptually on different networks. An inter-network protocol is required to connect them. One could combine the two protocols to form a powerful third, mastering both cable and wireless transmission, but a different super-protocol would be needed for each possible combination of protocols.
It is easier to leave the base protocols alone, and design a protocol that can work on top of any of them the Internet Protocol is an example.
This will make two stacks of two protocols each. The inter-network protocol will communicate with each of the base protocol in their simpler language; the base protocols will not talk directly to each other. A request on computer A to send a chunk of data to C is taken by the upper protocol, which through whatever means knows that C is reachable through B.
It, therefore, instructs the wireless protocol to transmit the data packet to B. On this computer, the lower layer handlers will pass the packet up to the inter-network protocol, which, on recognizing that B is not the final destination, will again invoke lower-level functions.
This time, the cable protocol is used to send the data to C. There, the received packet is again passed to the upper protocol, which with C being the destination will pass it on to a higher protocol or application on C.
The network protocol stack used by Amiga software Example protocol stack and corresponding layers Protocol.Figure 4: The Bluetooth Protocol Stack The application layer is probably obvious, but the standard provides Profiles laying out rules for how applications use the protocol stack, ensuring interoperability at application level (see “Bluetooth”).
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet. hourglass structure of the Internet protocol stack, and attempting to identify a parsimonious set of principles or mechanisms that are sufﬁcient to reproduce the observed phenomena.
As such, EvoArch is an explanatory model (as opposed to black-box models that aim. Figure 4: The Bluetooth Protocol Stack The application layer is probably obvious, but the standard provides Profiles laying out rules for how applications use the protocol stack, ensuring interoperability at application level (see “Bluetooth”).
Internet protocol Essay. Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP is not just a protocol, but a protocol suite. It encompasses many protocols, such as IP, TCP, UDP, ICMP, IGMP and so on. The TCP/IP suite (like its conterpart, the OSI model) uses the principal of a "stack".
Each level of the protocol stack solves some set of problems, and has a "payload" area. Including optional components and excluding the Internet Protocol, from the bottom of the stack, moving up: Oasis Labs is building out Ekiden, a neutral platform that will allow many chains to support private, off-chain, TEE-based computation.