Americans are chronically sleep deprived.
The current study addresses three specific questions concerning spontaneous napping behavior in modern society: How often do power naps and long naps occur in young and middle-aged adults? Do power naps or long naps differentially influence sleep quantity or sleep quality?
Do power naps or long naps influence sleep differently across the two age groups? The middle-aged adults responded to advertisements in a local newspaper or were the parents of undergraduate stu- dents at the university where we conducted the study.
We recruited the young adults through introductory-level psychology courses and gave them extra credit for their participation in the study. We excluded from the study shift workers and persons who reported sleeping at times other than nighttime.
All of the participants were healthy during the experimental period and had not been hospitalized in the previous 3 months. None of the participants reported that they had been diag- nosed with a sleep disorder or regularly used sleeping aids. Before the onset of the experimental period, the participants attended an initial informational meeting at which we explained the sleep log.
At the meeting, each participant had an opportunity to review the log and to ask questions. At the same time, the participants received instruction sheets with step-by-step directions regarding the completion of the sleep log. During the initial meeting, we also gathered information about each participant, including age and gender, and partic- ipants signed informed-consent documents.
All participants completed a 7-day sleep log, beginning on a Wednesday afternoon and ending the following Wednesday morning. We chose the late afternoon time to avoid the circadian dip that occurs in the early afternoon and the peak that occurs in the early evening.
Approximately half of the middle-aged adults and all of the young adults completed the surveys in a classroom setting at the university. The remaining middle- aged adults filled out the surveys in a nondistracting envi- ronment at home and mailed the completed surveys to us.
We compared the data for the middle-aged adults who com- pleted the surveys in a classroom setting with those from individuals who completed the surveys at home. The two data sets were not statistically different; therefore we col- lapsed the data from the middle-aged adults to create one data set for comparison to the young adults.
Surveys The sleep log we used in the current study was modeled after a log used by Hawkins and Shaw 17 tigation. It assessed sleep quantity, sleep quality, and nap- ping time for each hour period.
Self-reported estimates of sleep quantity have been shown to be highly correlated with physiological measures of sleep; 18,19 vide meaningful data about sleep habits. We assessed sleep quantity with two questions asking for a the total amount of time spent in bed with the intention of sleeping time in bed: TIB and b an estimated time asleep.
The participants rated sleep quality for the previous night each morning on a scale from 1 awful to 7 great. In addition, each partici- pant recorded the amount of time that he or she napped dur- ing the previous hour period. The participants completed the sleep log each morning immediately after awakening.
For analysis, we averaged the TIB, time asleep, daily sleep quality, and napping time across the 7-day sleep-log period. We also averaged the daily amount of caffeine and alcohol intake reported across the week. The participants completed the PSQI as an additional measure of average sleep quality.
The PSQI has been shown to have strong internal validity and temporal stability.To assess whether daytime naps negatively impact nocturnal sleep.
Daily sleep information was collected in three 2-week periods (10–12, 14–16, and 18–20 weeks gestation) with a daily sleep diary and an actigraph. The average number of naps, as well as the average length of each nap, were. The relationship between sleep and depressive illness is complex – depression may cause sleep problems and sleep problems may cause or contribute to depressive disorders.
For some people, symptoms of depression occur . Napping May Be Able to Reverse The Damage of Sleep Deprivation. the subjects were able to take two minute naps the day after being sleep-deprived. "Napping may offer a way to counter the damaging effects of sleep restriction by helping the immune and neuroendocrine systems to recover," said Faraut in the release.
"The findings. Sleep inertia is defined as the feeling of grogginess and disorientation that can come with awakening from a deep sleep. While this state usually only lasts for a few minutes to a half-hour, it can be detrimental to those who must perform immediately after waking from a napping period.
According to computer major, Alberto Davila, chronic sleep deprivation and afternoon naps have caused much trouble in his daily life, “Every night is the same thing. I can’t fall asleep. When I do, it’s almost time to get ready for class.
order to assess the levels of sleep deprivation and sleep quality of collegiate sleeping behaviors. Six variables Results indicated a significant positive correlation between amount of sleep per night with GPA, and a factors may contribute to the disturbances of sleep habits in college students.
Late-night studying, all-nighters.