Behavior[ edit ] Norms running counter to the behaviors of the overarching society or culture may be transmitted and maintained within small subgroups of society. For example, Crandall noted that certain groups e. Social norms have a way of maintaining order and organizing groups. The cultural phenomenon that is the norm is the prescriber of acceptable behavior in specific instances.
It should be made clear to the jury that any concern about the evidence or the conduct of the Rebuttal outline should be raised by a note with the judge and not with a court attendant. The Crown may refer to the witnesses it intends to call and what evidence it is anticipated that a particular witness will give: The Crown should indicate in opening whether it relies upon any statutory or common law alternatives to the offence charged in the indictment.
The Crown can be asked not to open on evidence to which objection will be taken but where admissibility has not been determined. Counsel for the accused can open but it should only be to indicate the issues in contention and not be a wide ranging discussion of the Rebuttal outline Witnesses in the Crown case It is a matter for the Crown how it structures its case, what witnesses to call and the order of calling witnesses.
In a joint trial it is suggested that the judge ask the Crown Prosecutor to identify evidence which is admissible against one accused but not against another or others at the time the evidence is led. The judge should make clear to the jury how the evidence can be used or not used against each accused.
Procedures can be adopted Rebuttal outline preserve the anonymity of witnesses where necessary: Generally the judge has no role to play in the calling of witnesses. There are several statutory provisions that permit witnesses to give evidence by alternative means.
See generally [ ]ff. When these provisions are utilised, the judge is required by statute to explain the procedure to the jury. There are suggested warnings and directions contained in the chapter.
It is suggested that these explanations and directions are given at the time the witness is to be called and before the witness is called. They may be given again in the summing up, if it appears necessary to do so to ensure the jury is aware of these matters before deliberating.
As to giving evidence by the use of a video recording, see [ ]ff.
As to evidence by audio-visual link, see [ ]. Directions may be necessary if a relevant witness is not called by the Crown, see Witnesses — not called at [ ].
If a witness objects to giving particular evidence or evidence on a particular matter under cross-examination, the judge is required to explain to the witness in the absence of the jury the privilege against self-incrimination, see [ ]ff. As to expert evidence see [ ]ff.
Where there is some complexity in the expert evidence it is suggested that the jury be given the opportunity to raise any matter they would like to be further explained or clarified. The jury could be asked to retire to the jury room to consider whether there is anything they wish to raise before the expert is excused and to send a note which the judge will then discuss with counsel.
As to jury questions generally, see Jury questions for witnesses at [ ] and Expert evidence at [ ]. A direction may contain warnings or caution the jury about the care needed in assessing evidence or about how it can be used: These are addressed in the following sections of this Book: Such matters are within the common experience of the community and thus capable of being understood by the jury: R v Fowler A Crim R R v Stewart at .
R v Ayoub at . However there are some types of evidence, such as identification evidence and hearsay evidence, that are potentially unreliable no matter whether they exculpate or inculpate an accused: Some warning is required about the potential unreliability of the evidence: R v Rose at .
A direction is usually required in relation to: A direction or warning is not the same as a comment and generally a comment will be inadequate if a warning or direction is required.
It is suggested that directions and warnings about particular types of evidence or witnesses be given at the time the evidence is called before the jury.
If the evidence is very prominent in the trial it may be appropriate to give the direction or warning immediately after the opening addresses, for example where the Crown case is solely or substantially based upon visual identification.
Directions and warnings should also be repeated in the summing up. It may be appropriate to give a direction or warning in writing at the time it is given orally to the jury, or for it to be included in the written directions in the summing up depending upon the significance of the evidence to the Crown case.
The trial judge should be seen as impartial and must take care not to become too involved in the conduct of the trial, in particular in questioning witnesses: It is for the parties to define the issues to be determined by the jury.
A cardinal principle of criminal litigation is that the parties are bound by the conduct of their counsel:Apr 17, · In your rebuttal, you will respond to the arguments your opponent has made in the debate. How to Rebut Better. Three Parts: put your arguments into an outline that you can refer to in order to make sure all of your points are addressed in your rebuttal.
Your outline might look like this: A. Refute counterargument - issue is 73%(99). Graphic Organizer. A graphic organizer is a visual display that demonstrates relationships between facts, concepts or ideas. A graphic organizer guides the learner’s thinking as they fill .
A rebuttal essay, also known as an argument or counter-argument essay, typically responds to specific points made by a person or organization.
As in a debate, this type of essay gives you the opportunity to present your opinions on a situation using research and critical thinking to address an argument.
Understanding. How to Write an Essay. In this Article: Article Summary Writing Your Essay Revising Your Essay Writing a Persuasive Essay Writing an Expository Essay Write a Narrative Essay Essay Help Community Q&A Throughout your academic career, you will often be asked to write essays.
You may have to work on an assigned essay for class, enter an essay contest or write essays for college admissions. Free Essay: REBUTTAL FORM OF PERSUASION The purpose of this paper is to argue against those perpetrators who are committing human rights violations against.
To write a rebuttal speech, identify arguments that support your side of the issue and arguments that might defeat your position. Use supporting information to prove that your position is stronger.
Compare your position on the issue to your opponent's position. Identify three or four key arguments.