National academy of sciences essay

Global map of potential tipping cascades. The individual tipping elements are color- coded according to estimated thresholds in global average surface temperature tipping points 12 Arrows show the potential interactions among the tipping elements based on expert elicitation that could generate cascades. Observations of past behavior support an important contribution of changes in ocean circulation to such feedback cascades.

National academy of sciences essay

Page ix Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. The report of the Committee on Improving Research Information and Data on Firearms was not intended to, nor does it reach any conclusions about the issue of gun control.

National academy of sciences essay

Rather, we have addressed what empirical research tells about the role of firearms in violence. Our recommendations address how to improve the empirical foundation for discussions about firearms policy. Until that foundation is better established, little progress is likely in the ongoing public debate over firearms.

One theme that runs throughout our report is the relative absence of credible data central to addressing even the most basic questions about firearms and violence.

As we often state in the report, without much better data, important questions will continue to be unanswerable. This is unacceptable when we see the impact that firearm-related violent injury and death have on American society and especially some of the most vulnerable segments of that population.

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The fact that little can be said about the prevention and control of these levels of death and injury—when for some segments of the population they are the leading causes of death and injury—is of concern to us as citizens and scientists.

Reaching National academy of sciences essay on a controversial topic for which research is limited and in conflict requires an exceptional committee and staff.

The committee has spent the past two years learning about research and data on firearms and seeking to learn from each other how our disciplines evaluate Page x Share Cite Suggested Citation: It is only because committee members had diverse backgrounds, uncommon respect for each other, and a willingness to apply common scientific standards to our deliberations that we were able to complete our work in what I think is an exceptional manner.

Some may disagree with our analysis, but none can question our effort to raise the science of firearms research so that it can begin to inform public policy.

I thank committee members for their work and patience. Needless to say, the staff for the committee carried a very heavy load. Without them we would have not been able to complete our work.

The DNA of Success

John Pepper in particular deserves special recognition as the study director. John not only provided outstanding staff support but he also helped form the structure of our report, edited and contributed to many of the chapters, was the primary drafter of one chapter, and always managed to see a way forward when we seemed stymied.

Carol Petrie, staff director of the Committee on Law and Justice, provided invaluable insight into the way we could deal with controversial topics, helped keep us on track, and edited every chapter. Brenda McLaughlin, research associate, provided valuable assistance, and Michelle McGuire, program assistant, and Ralph Patterson, senior project assistant, performed superbly.

National Academy of Sciences

The committee is grateful to Anthony Braga, Harvard University, whose work as a consultant to the committee throughout its period of operation was invaluable. And the committee wants to thank Christine McShane, of the Division on Social and Behavioral Sciences and Education, for her invaluable assistance in preparing the manuscript for review and publication.

She provided clear and sensible guidance on chapter and appendix organization, and she did an outstanding job of editing the entire report, several times.

The committee could not have completed its work without the assistance of many scholars and policy officials who gave unstintingly of their time and shared their resources, their work, and their thinking.

To gather information on a variety of subjects from a diversity of perspectives, we held four public workshops: We thank all of the individuals who served as presenters and discussants at these meetings.

They are listed here alphabetically, and with their affiliations at the time of each workshop: Roseanna Ander, Joyce Foundation; J. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council NRC.

The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge.

The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release.

Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered.

National academy of sciences essay

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This list of Universities in Greece includes all institutions of higher (or tertiary) education in Greece.. In the field of post-secondary education there are centers of postsecondary education (abbreviated KEME in Greek) or colleges (kollegia is the transliteration from the Greek word for colleges).

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In May physicist Alan Sokal published an essay in the fashionable academic journal Social Text. The essay quoted hip theorists like Jacques Lacan. Published since , Biographical Memoirs provide the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased National Academy of Sciences members.

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Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene | PNAS