Indochina study notes essay

Okra is an "Old World" vegetable. The exact place of origin is still matter of debate. Over the centuries, many cultures have embraced okra and used it to create traditional dishes.

Indochina study notes essay

Niah Cave entrance at sunset Anatomically modern human hunter-gatherer migration Indochina study notes essay Southeast Asia before 50, years ago has been confirmed by the combined fossil record of the region. Modern human presence in the Niah cave on East Malaysia dates back to 40, years BP, although archaeological documentation of the early settlement period suggests only brief occupation phases.

Items there found such as burial jars, earthenware, jade ornaments and other jewellery, stone tools, animal bones, and human fossils date back to 47, years BP. Unearthed human remains are approximately 24, years old.

Indochina study notes essay

Research emphasises considerable variations in quality and nature of the artefacts, influenced by region-specific environmental conditions and proximity and access to local resources.

Remarkable is nonetheless that the Hoabinhian culture accounts for the first verified ritual burials in Southeast Asia. Subsequent Neolithic immigration waves are intensely debated considered dynamic and complex, and research has resorted to linguistic terms and argumentation for group identification and classification.

Several states of the Malayan-Indonesian "thalassian" zone [39] shared these characteristics with Indochinese polities like the Pyu city-states in the Irrawaddy river valley, Van Lang in the Red River delta and Funan around the lower Mekong.

Many tribal communities of the aboriginal Australo-Melanesian settlers continued the lifestyle of mixed sustenance until the modern era. From Prehistory to the Present" "the indigenous hunter-gatherers integrated with intrusive Neolithic communities and, while losing their cultural identity, contributed their genes to the present population of Southeast Asia.

This industry of highly sophisticated metal processing has been developed locally bare of Chinese or Indian influence. Historians relate these achievements to the presence of well organised, centralised and hierarchical communities and a large population.

Christopher Bassford: Tiptoe Through the Trinity

Among large, thin-walled, terracotta jars, ornamented and colourised cooking pots, glass items, jade earrings and metal objects had been deposited near the rivers and at the coast. Asia's expanding land and maritime trade had led to socio-economic interaction and cultural stimulation and diffusion of mainly Hindu beliefs into the regional cosmology of Southeast Asia.

Southeast Asia was now situated in the central area of convergence of the Indian and the East Asian maritime trade routes, the basis for economic and cultural growth. Selective adoption of Indian civilisation elements and individual suitable adaption stimulated the emergence of centralised states and development of highly organised societies.

Ambitious local leaders realised the benefits of Hindu worship. Rule in accord with universal moral principles represented in the concept of the devaraja was more appealing than the Chinese concept of intermediaries.

The exact nature, process and extent of Indian influence upon the civilisations of the region is still fiercely debated by contemporary scholars. Debated are most claims over whether it was Indian merchants, Brahmins, nobles or Southeast Asian mariner-merchants who played a central role in bringing Indian conceptions to Southeast Asia.

Debated is the depth of the influence of traditions for the people. Whereas early 20th-century scholars emphasised the thorough Indianisation of Southeast Asia, more recent authors argued that this influence was very limited and affected only a small section of the elite.

This trading link boosted the development of Funan, its successor Chenla and the Malayan states of Langkasuka on the eastern and Kedah on the western coast. Numerous coastal communities in maritime Southeast Asia adopted Hindu and Buddhist cultural and religious elements from India and developed complex polities ruled by native dynasties.

Although knowledge about port localities and shipping lanes is very limited, it is assumed that most of this exchange took place on land routes and only a small percentage was shipped "on coastal vessels crewed by Malay and Yue traders". Historians increasingly argue, that the process of Hindu religious diffusion must be attributed to the initiative of the local chieftains.

Buddhist teachings, that almost simultaneously arrived in Southeast Asia developed during the subsequent centuries an exalted distinction and eventually came to be perceived as more appealing to the demands of the general population, a belief system and philosophy that addresses concrete human affairs.

Emperor Ashoka initiated the tradition to send trained monks and missionaries abroad who spread Buddhism, that includes a sizeable body of literature, oral traditions, iconography, art and offers guidance as it seeks to solve central existential questions with emphasis on individual effort and conduct.

By the 8th century the Buddhist Srivijaya kingdom emerged as a major trading power in central Maritime Southeast Asia and around the same period the Shailendra dynasty of Java extensively promoted Buddhist art that found its strongest expression in the vast Borobudur monument.

However, a pure form of Theravada Buddhist teachings had been preserved in Sri Lanka since the 3rd century.Introductory notes. The subject of this chapter of our TrotskyanaNet site is not the Trotskyist press in general, i.e.

the serials (or, periodicals) produced and disseminated by the numerous national parties and groups or international bodies claiming adherence to Trotsky and/or to Trotskyist positions in past and present. Those publications were dealt with in our Trotskyist Serials. Conflict in Indochina Essay on US involvement, and factors for involvement including containment, self interest and global hegemony.

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