Open source software and crowd sourced data for operational performance analysis Author: To date the access to operational data in support of research claims or observed performance benefits is limited. Though the majority of related data sets are established and curated by government authorities, open data access is still in its infancy. ICAO promotes a performance based approach.
The concept became particularly predominant since end of World War II with the widespread use of computer networks. The rise of information science in the middle fifties is a testimony of this.
For a science like information science IS it is of course important how its fundamental terms are defined, and in IS as in other fields the problem of how to define information is often raised.
This review is an attempt to overview the present status of the information concept in IS with a view also to interdisciplinary trends.
In scientific discourses theoretical concepts are not true or false elements or pictures of some part of reality, but are constructions designed to do a job the best possible way.
Different conceptions of fundamental terms like information are thus more or less fruitful depending on what theories and in the end what practical actions they are expected to support.
In Chapter 1, we discuss the problems of defining terms in the light of the philosophy of science. The history of a word tells us mostly only anecdotes that are peripheral to the concept itself. But in our case the use of the word information points to a specific perspective under which the concept of knowledge communication was defined and designated.
We explore this history in Chapter 2 and we believe that our results may help to better understand the complexity of this concept also with regard to its scientific definitions. The discussions about the information concept in other disciplines are also very important for Information Science because many theories and approaches in Information Science have their origins in other disciplines.
This is surveyed in Chapter 3. The epistemological concept of information has lead also to a new perspective of non-human information processes particularly in physics and biology. This can be illustrated also in physical terms with regard to release mechanisms as we suggest at the end of Chapter 3.
Our overview of the concept of information in the natural sciences as well as in the humanities and social sciences does not aim at exploring different theories in depth. In most cases we can only refer to fragments of theories that the user may interpret within her own background or follow the hints of the bibliography.
Readers mostly interested in information science may get more satisfied with Chapter 4 where we bring a more detailed explanation of diverse views and theories of information within our field, supplementing the ARIST article by Cornelius We show that the introduction of the concept of information about to what was formerly special librarianship and documentation in itself has had serious consequences for the kind of knowledge and theories developed in our field.
The important question is not only what meaning we give to the term in Information Science, but also how it relates to other basic terms such as documents, texts and knowledge. The development and widespread use of computer networks since the end of World War II, and the emergence of information science as a discipline in the s, are evidence of this focus.
Although knowledge and its communication are basic phenomena of every human society, it is the rise of information technology and its global impacts that characterize ours as as an information society.
It is commonplace to consider information as a basic condition for economic development together with capital, labor, and raw material; but what makes information especially significant at present is its digital nature.
The impact of information technology on the natural and social sciences has made this everyday notion a highly controversial concept. The fact that the concept of knowledge communication has been designated with the word information seems, prima facie, a linguistic happenstance.
For a science like information science IS it is of course important how fundamental terms are defined; and in IS, as in other fields, the question of how to define information is often raised.
This chapter is an attempt to review the status of the concept of information in IS, with reference also to interdisciplinary trends. In scientific discourse, theoretical concepts are not true or false elements or glimpses of some element of reality; rather, they are constructions designed to do a job the best possible way.
Different conceptions of fundamental terms like information are thus more or less fruitful, depending on the theories and in the end, the practical actions they are expected to support. In the opening section, we discuss the problem of defining terms from the perspective of the philosophy of science.
The history of a word provides us with anecdotes that are tangential to the concept itself. But in our case, the use of the word information points to a specific perspective from which the concept of knowledge communication has been defined.
This perspective includes such characteristics as novelty and relevance; i. This discussion leads to the questions of why and when this meaning was designated with the word information.
We explore this history, and we believe that our results may help readers better understand the complexity of the concept with regard to its scientific definitions.
Discussions about the concept of information in other disciplines are very important for IS because many theories and approaches in IS have their origins elsewhere see the section "Information as an Interdisciplinary concept" in this chapter."Define And Discuss The Concept Of Ecological Services" Essays and Research Papers Define And Discuss The Concept Of Ecological Services removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to non-forest use.
following service management ideas, theories, concepts and techniques; specifically with reference to their purpose, application and limitations and with regard to how these service management ideas, theories and techniques may contribute to the development of a successful business: Service concept, Service concept profiling and The SERVQUAL model.
The concept of information as we use it in everyday English in the sense knowledge communicated plays a central role in today's society. The concept became particularly predominant since end of World War II with the widespread use of computer networks.
Ecological Services. In a page paper, using APA-style formatting, define and discuss the concept of ecological services. Then, review the Ã¢â‚¬Å“Ecological Services of RiversÃ¢â‚¬Â outlined in Mini Lecture: Water Resources and Water Pollution.
In this guest post, James Thomas Erbaugh from the University of Oxford talks about what ecosystem services are and introduces some of the tensions between an ecosystem services framework and biodiversity conservation.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems. Such ecosystems include, for example, agroecosystems, forest ecosystems, grassland ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems.