But there were signs that they were also beginning to identify with this place.
Naval exploits in the age of Elizabeth I are regularly romanticised and their significance exaggerated. Late 16th century England, though growing in importance under an able, crafty and ruthless monarch, remained a bit-part player on the European stage.
The Victorians believed that peace was a necessary pre-condition of long-term prosperity. These acquisitions were not uncontested. A number of colonial wars were fought and insurgencies put down as bloodily as the colonisers considered necessary.
Many colonial administrators took on their duties with a fierce determination to do good. That said, there is no gainsaying the fact that both many colonial administrators and Christian missionaries took on their colonial duties with a fierce determination to do good.
Industrialisation brought with it new markets, a consumer boom and greater prosperity for most of the propertied classes.
It also brought rapid, and sometimes chaotic change as towns and cities expanded at a pace which precluded orderly growth. Life expectancy at birth - in the high 30s in - had crept up to 48 by Desperately poor housing conditions, long working hours, the ravages of infectious disease and premature death were the inevitable consequence.
The Victorians wrestled with this schizoid legacy of industrialism. Polluted water and damp housing were the main causes. Life expectancy at birth, in the high 30s inhad crept up to 48 by This had much to do with healthy scepticism about the opinions of experts, particularly when those experts advocated greater centralised state interference in what they considered to be the proper sphere of local authorities and agencies.
Furthermore, state involvement meant higher taxes and higher taxes were said to hamper both business and job creation. Localism undoubtedly stymied many public health initiatives at least until the last two decades of the reign. Christian gentlemen considered it a duty to make legacies to worthy causes.
The Victorian era saw considerable expenditure on monuments to civic pride. The competitive ethic which drove so much business enterprise was channelled by local worthies into spending on opulent town halls and other civic buildings.
By no means all of these were intended for the use of a propertied elite.
Libraries, wash-houses and swimming baths were all funded as part of a determination to provide working people with the means to improve themselves.
Civic identity and civic engagement were more powerful forces in Victorian than in early 20th-century Britain. Nor were the Victorian middle and upper classes parsimonious over charitable giving.French Society in the 19th Century Dress Class Structure In France during the 's, it was the beginning of a working class movement.
Saturary system . By the midth century, industrialization was well-established throughout the western part of Europe and America’s northeastern region. By the early 20th century, the U.S.
had become the world. Mar 29, · In the industrial and social unrest of the 19th century, struggles occurred between the growing force of industrial employers and the working classes over their working and living conditions.
Karl Marx exaggerated when he saw British society of the mid 19th century riven along class lines. History of Europe - The middle 19th century: During the half century when Romanticism was deploying its talents and ideas, the political minds inside or outside Romanticist culture were engaged in the effort to settle—each party or group or theory in its own way—the legacy of There were at least half a dozen great issues claiming attention and arousing passion.
Sep 18, · The divergence between historians’ interpretations of nineteenth century working-class religion is also partly explicable in the diversity of the Victorian working-class.
There were important religious differences between regions, between ethnic groups, between occupational groups, and between men and women. The second Industrial Revolution lasted from the midth century until the early 20th century and took place in Britain, continental Europe, North America, and Japan.
Later in the 20th century, the second Industrial Revolution spread to other parts of the world.