The eyes of Dr. Eckleburg symbolize in this chapter advertising and materialism gone mad, one of the central themes of the plot".
Themes The Role of Misperception in the Cultural Divide between Europe and America Newman goes to Europe because he wants to see the best of what the world has to offer. For the moment, at least, he has had enough of making money, and would now like to see what his money can buy.
He wants to hear the best music, taste the best wine, see the best art and, most ambitiously, find the best woman to be his wife. Yet implicit in Newman's European ambitions is his misperception that Europe can be understood simply as an older, richer, and more sophisticated version of America.
Newman and others like him imagine Europe as the sort of place that America would be in perhaps a hundred years, if it puts its mind to painting and sculpture and music with the same industry it has thus far demonstrated in its commerce and industry. This good-natured conception—essentially, that the difference between America and Europe cannot run too deep—is a symptom of the stereotypically American ignorance of history, and thus of all the cultural, social, and political differences that accrue in history's wake.
In short, Americans are frequently seen as failing to distinguish an abstract admiration for European culture and artifacts from a selfish wish to possess them.
But the consequences of such culturally ignorant acquisition were often, as the novel attests, tragic. This issue begs the question of why and how these American misperceptions have arisen?
In one simplified reading, the America of James's time is too fundamentally tied to material production to move on to the more sophisticated industries of cultural and ideological production. As a result, though they admire and covet the fruits of the European project, Americans abroad during this time lack the intuitive apparatus for dealing with the political and social formalisms and complexities of Europe.
James deliberately presents the Bellegardes—or more precisely the nuclear aristocratic family—as the fundamental unit of French society juxtaposed against a superlatively American individual.
The juxtaposition is one of a successful, if lapsed, capitalist against a self-important family who might cynically be called producers of culture. Much of the difficulty the Bellegarde elders have with Newman, and that he has with them, results from the expected difference in values, beliefs, habits, occupations and desires.
Another crucial point, however, has to do with the levels on which difference is approached and understood.
In The American, one important cipher for European and American difference is arrangement of space. The Paris Newman finds is an intricate, labyrinthine mess of streets and boulevards.
Newman's encounter with Europe is partly a matter of learning to negotiate the different landscape and the physical ways in which humans have chosen to arrange themselves.
He avidly walks the city, asks Valentin endless questions about the Bellegarde house, imagines the effects of American mechanical innovations in Europe, and delights in his quaint and excessively gilded quarters.
Yet as long as Newman attempts to make sense of Europe as a variation on American paradigms, he remains unable to perceive Europe's fundamental difference as anything other than creative deviance. Tellingly, at novel's end, Newman does not admit to a great difference between European and American temperaments or attempt to construct a calculus in which Urbain's actions would appear logical.
Instead, he simply concludes that the Bellegardes are crazy. As a result, even after Mrs.Analysis Of John Updike's A&P Essay Words | 7 Pages.
John Updike's story "A&P" talks about a year old lad, Sammy, who has a job at the local grocery store, the A&P. Sammy works at the register in the store and is always observing the people who walk in and out each day. How does the story being narrated by Callie influence the reader’s perception of what’s taking place throughout the story?
2) What is Jen trying to tell the reader about American society regarding material goods and wealth? From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The American Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays.
How does the story being narrated by Callie influence the reader’s perception of what’s taking place throughout the story? 2) What is Jen trying to tell the reader about American society regarding material goods and wealth?
Buy Literary Analysis of The Great Gatsby essay paper online Described by literal critics as the greatest work of Scott F. Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby not only remains one the greatest stories of all the time but also opens insight into the intrigues of the real life situation during the "Roaring Twenties.".
Gish Jen (b. ), a first-generation American and an award-winning author of short stories and novels, was born on Long Island to parents who had been educated in Shanghai (mother in educational psychology, father in engineering) and who had immigrated separately to the United States around the time of World War II.