References and Further Reading 1.
Altruism in animalsEvolution of moralityand Evolutionary ethics Giving alms to beggar children In the science of ethology the study of animal behaviourand more generally in the study of social evolutionaltruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor.
Two related strands of research on altruism have emerged from traditional evolutionary analyses and from evolutionary game theory a mathematical model and analysis of behavioural strategies.
Some of the proposed mechanisms are: Even subtle cues indicating kinship may unconsciously increase altruistic behavior. One kinship cue is facial resemblance.
One study found that slightly altering photographs so that they more closely resembled the faces of study participants increased the trust the participants expressed regarding depicted persons.
Another cue is having the same family name, especially if rare, and this has been found to increase helpful behavior. Another study found more cooperative behavior the greater the number of perceived kin in a group.
Using kinship terms in political speeches increased audience agreement with the speaker in one study. This effect was especially strong for firstborns, who are typically close to their families. People are likely to suffer if their friends, allies, and similar social ingroups suffer or even disappear.
Helping such group members may therefore eventually benefit the altruist. Making ingroup membership more noticeable increases cooperativeness. Extreme self-sacrifice towards the ingroup may be adaptive if a hostile outgroup threatens to kill the entire ingroup.
The effective tit for tat strategy is one game theoretic example. Many people seem to be following a similar strategy by cooperating if and only if others cooperate in return. People tend to be less cooperative if they perceive that the frequency of helpers in the population is lower.
They tend to help less if they see non-cooperativeness by others and this effect tend to be stronger than the opposite effect of seeing cooperative behaviors.
Simply changing the cooperative framing of a proposal may increase cooperativeness such as calling it a "Community Game" instead of a "Wall Street Game. This has been used by charities that give small gifts to potential donors hoping thereby to induce reciprocity.
Another method is to announce publicly that someone has given a large donation. The tendency to reciprocate can even generalize so people become more helpful toward others in general after being helped.
On the other hand, people will avoid or even retaliate against those perceived not to be cooperating. People sometimes mistakenly fail to help when they intended to, or their helping may not be noticed, which may cause unintended conflicts. As such, it may be an optimal strategy to be slightly forgiving of and have a slightly generous interpretation of non-cooperation.
This may be due to better assessments of cooperativeness or due to exchange of promises.Where human behaviour is concerned, the distinction between biological altruism, defined in terms of fitness consequences, and ‘real’ altruism, defined in terms of the agent's conscious intentions to help others, does make sense.
Members of a group of Japanese macaques grooming each other. Grooming is a type of altruistic behaviour that can extend even to unrelated individuals when the behaviour is reciprocal and the giver's costs are smaller than the recipient's benefits.
Nov 13, · Altruism is good for education: High-quality service learning programs, where students complement their classroom learning with real-world community service, improve academic performance and make students feel more connected to their school.
What is altruism? Benjamin Kerr 1, Peter Godfrey-Smith 2 and Marcus W. Feldman 3 1 Department of Ecology,Evolution and Behavior, University Minnesot a, Upper Buford Circle, St Paul, MN , USA 2 Philosophy Program RSSS, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT , Australia 3 Department of Biological Sciences, .
Altruism and Group Selection. Ever since Darwin created his theory of evolution in the nineteenth century, and especially since the nineteen sixties, scientists and philosophers of science have been intensely debating whether and how selection occurs at the level of the group. The debates over group selection maintain their vitality for several reasons: because group .
Four types of altruism include: nepotistic altruism, reciprocal altruism (or mutualism), group-based altruism and moral altruism. Nepotistic Altruism The first form of altruism .